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Japanese Lessons >Grammar> the use of particles in other forms


Nominative particle used in Japanese sentence construction  助詞



Objectives, locatives and instruments

The makers or declarators of objects, locatives and instruments in a Japanese sentence.
Japanese particles are used to mark the objects, locatives and instruments1 .


wo object declarator
The direct object of non-stative transitive verbs is declared by the object particle を (wo).

わたし(I)が りんご(apples) たべた(ate)。I ate apples.    Japanese



ni,  e location/direction declarators
The temporal location is declared by the particle of に or へ. に and へ are interchangeably used.

わたし がっこう いく。(私は学校に行く。) I go to the school.    Japanese

わたし がっこう いく。(私は学校へ行く。) I go to the school.    Japanese

The Use of Japanese Particles

Subject (S) verb (V) object(O)

I(S) eat(V) apples(O). → SがOV。私がりんご食る。
I(S) go(V) to school(L). SがLV。私は学校行く。
I(S) came(V) from school(L). SはLからV。私は学校から来た。
I(S) walked(V) from school(L1) to home(L2). SはL1からL2までV。私は学校からまで歩いた。
I(S) go(V) to school(L) by a bicycle(M). SはLMV。 私は学校自転車行く。


de instrumental declarator
で is used, like by in an English sentence, to indicate locations.

わたし がっこうに じてんしゃ いく。(私は学校に自転車で行く。) 
I go to the school by a bicycle.    Japanese

The following forms are also used.

じてんしゃ わたし がっこうに いく。(自転車で私は学校に行く。) 
I go to the school by a bicycle.    Japanese

わたしじてんしゃ がっこうに  いく。(私は自転車で学校に行く。) 
I go to the school by a bicycle.    Japanese


ga2 is also used to declare an object.
For stative transitive verbs, が ga instead of をwo is typically used to mark the object.

わたし ( I ) りんご(apples)1すきです(like)。 私はりんごが好きです。I like apples.   Japanese




*1Note, an extensive Japanese particle discussion is found in Wikipedia.
*2わたし りんご すきです。I am the one who likes apples. (In full, わたしが りんごが すきな ひと です。Where, "りんごが すきな ひと" = "the one who likes apples".) This could be replied to a presumed question; which one of you likes apples?


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