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Japanese Lessons >Grammar>conjunctive particles

Japanese sentence construction introduction (4) on conjunctive partciles 接続助詞

Japanese conjunctive particles

Japanese conjunctive particles primarily working with verbs and adjectives extend their meaning or shift the relationship. By doing so, they provide Japanese speakers considerable freedom in the sentence structuring, like the nominative paricles freed the speakers from the subject, object and verbs sequencing. You might try to limit the study, however, to the primary property initially. Any serious students are urged to read grammar books.


particles descriptionexample usages comments
    
て[te]
Aて、B。
While under the effect of A, B, where A describes further about B.

rennyoukei + te
non conditional usage :

connect verb with auxiliary verb of iru or aru.
verb て + いる or ある。
歩いいる。arui te iru. is walking.
暖めある。atatame te aru. have been warmed.
歩く walk
暖める warm (vt)
non conditional usage :

parallel connection.
and also
彼女は背が高く、細く、優しい。
kanojo ha se ga takaku te, hosoku te, yasashii.
She is tall, slender, and kind.
Also used for contrasting, concurrence, sequencing, method
condition and result :

- cause and effect
- contradictory conjunction
- suppostion and contradictory conjunciton
- result
寒く、眠れない。(cause - effect)
samuku te, nemure nai.
I cannot sleep because it is cold.
旦那は元気でい、働かない。(contradictory)
dannna ha gennkide ite, hataraka nai.
He is healty, but he doesn't want to work.
後悔したっ、手遅れだ。(suppostion and contradictory conjunciton)
koukai sitatte, teokureda.
Even though you may have regretted, it is too late now.
駅から歩い、10分です。(result)
eki kara arui te, 10punn desu.
It will take 10 minutes from the station if you walk.
ば[ba]
A ば B。
supposition and result :

if A ~ then B.
寒けれ、暖房と点けてください。
samukere ba, dannbou wo tsukete kudasai.
If it is cold, then you turn on the heater.
行け、分かります。
ike ba, wakari masu.
If you go there, you will see it.
the relationships could be supposition, presence, evidence, cause, customary

This is a shortened version of ~ならば and~たらば.
non suppositional :

parallel connection
not only A, but also B
彼女は美人でもあれ、頭もきれる。
kanojo ha bijinn demo are ba, atamamo kireru.
She is not only pretty, but also smart.
This is not a primary usage. So might leave this for the adavanced study.
と[to]、なり[nari]
Aと、B。

non suppositional multiple results :

- sequence
- concurrence
- presupposition
彼女は家に着く、電話した。(sequence)
kano jo ha ie ni tsuku to, dennwa sita.
She made the call upon arrival at her house.
雷がすると、雨が降り出した。(concurrence)
kaminari ga suru to, ame ga huri dasi ta.
When thundering started, it started raining.
それを食べる、ねむくなるよ。(presupposition)sore wo taberu to, nemuku naru yo.
If you eat it, you will get drowsy.

suposition and result
if A, then B. Unless A, B.
- cause and effect
- resultative conjunction
- contradictory conjunction
- cutomary
漢字を勉強しない、後でいきづまるぞ。(cause and result)
kannji wo bennkyou sinnai to, ato de ikidumaru zo.
If you do not learn kanji, the study'll come to a halt.
歯を磨く、虫歯になりにくい。(resultative conjunction)
ha wo migaku to, mushiba ni nari nikui.
If you brush your teeth, you'll reduce the chance of cavity.
何を言おう、彼は信じまい。(contradictory conjunction)
nani wo iou to, kare ha shinnji mai. Regardless whatever you might to say to him, he would not believe you.
宿題ない、いい。(customary)
shukudai nai to, ii. If we have no homework, it'll be nice.

The wisteria's dangling produces a beatiful flower. The plant must have done its homework first.
なり
right at A moment, B takes place.
- concurrence
No sooner than
起きるなり、トイレに飛び込んだ。(concurrence)
okiru nari, toire ni tobikonnda.
No sooner had he got up than he rushed to the toilet.
出会うなり、彼は噛み付いてきた。
deau nari, kare ha kamitsuite kita.
He had no sooner seen me than he complained me.
から・ので
A から・ので B
Because of A, B.
A indicates the cause or reason for B.

since, because, so
The cause - effect relationship :

conclusive - guess
assertion -request
hope - hope
guess - recommendation
guess - intention
assertion - intention
assertion-past
assertion - assertion
assertion <--hope
朝早く出たから、間に合っているだろう。(assertion - guess)
asa hayaku de ta kara, mani atte iru darou.
Since he left early, he should be there in time.
電話かけますから、待っててください。(assertion -request)
dennwa kakemsu kara,mattete kudasai.
I will call you. So please wait for it.
漢字勉強したいから、辞書を貸してください。(hope - hope) kannji wo bennkyou sitai kara, jisho wo kasite kudasa sai.
I want to study kanji, so let me borrow the dictionary.
電話はすぐ終わるでしょうから、そのままお待ち下さい。(guess - recommendation)
dennwa ha sugu owaru deshou kara, sonomama omachi kudasai.
Since I expect he will finish the other call soon, plese hold the line.

電話は直ぐにおわらないでしょうから、後でかけなおします。(guess - intention)
dennwa ha sugu ni owaranai deshou kara, ato de kake naosi masu.
I will call back later in that the call will not be over soon.
電話は終ったので、彼と話せます。(conclusive - intention)
dennwa ha owatta node, kareto hanasemasu.
Since he finished the call, you now can speak to him.
ながら

A ながら B

As A, B.
simultaneously act A and B.
Do B while A.
いつもながらおみやげありがとう。
itsumo nagara omiyage arigatou.
As you alway have given me, thank you for this souvenir.
テレビを見ながら、食事をしている。
terebi wo minagara shokuji wo shiteiru.
As he watches the TV, he eats.
He eats while watching TV.
歩きながら話そう。
aruki nagara hanasou.
Let's discuss while we take a walk.
Let's discuss while walking. 答えを知りながら、教えなかった。
kotae wo shiri nagara oshie nakatta.
He had known the answer, but he did not tell me.
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The difference between te and nagara ; the former A describes B, B is the result of A. The latter, A and B are independent, i.e., B does not result from A.
が・けれども・のに
A, however, B.
Althoug A, B.
が・けれども
- insertion
-contradictory conjunction
雨は降っている、歩いて行こう。
amae ha futte iru ga, aruite yukou.
Although it is raining, we go on foot.
出会った事は無いけれど、美人だと聞く。
deatta koto ha naikeredo, bijinn da to kiku.
I have not met her, however, I heard she was beautiful.
のに
-contradictory conjunction
Because the present situation B contradicts A, one is unhappiness, unexpectedness, or unsatisfaction.
Although, even though
若いのに、もう頭は白い。
wakai no ni, mou atama ha shiroi.
He is young, but his hair has already turned white.

彼は若いのに、よく気が付く。kare ha wakai noni, yoku ki ga tsuku. Even though he is still young, he pays attention to the details.
ものなら・ものの・ものを・にもかかわらず
Supposition A, result/effect B.
ものなら
Should A, the bad thing B happens
口答えしようものなら、10倍も小言を言われる。
kuchi gotae shiyou mono nara, 10baimo kogoto wo iwareru.
If you were to object him, he'd scold you more harshly.
ものの
Having confirmed A, but B is true.
but, although
春は来たものの、まだ寒い。
haru ha kita monono, mada samusi.
Althought the spring has arrived, it is still cold.
though, although, despite the fact, for all that
ものを
Unhappily/unsatisfactly conditioin A, contradictory B.
One should A, but did not, so B happened.
黙っていればいいものを、話すからこじれたてしまった。
damatte ireba ii monowo, hanasukara kojirete shimatta.
He should have kept his mouth closed, but he spoke. Because of that the negotiation went out of control.
にもかかわらず
A, nevertheless, B

貧しいにもかかわらず、息子を学校にいかせた。
mazushii nimokakawarazu, musuko wo gakkou ni ikaseta.
They were poor, nevertheless, they sent their son to the school.
忙しいにもかかわらず、参観日には来る。
isogashi nimokakawarazu, sannkannbi niha kuru.
Although he is a busy person, he attends the parenets' visiting day.
in spite of
nimo-coolocation + rennyoukei of ver kakawaru + particle zu
ても
Even if A, B.
Even though A, B.
contradictory conjunction
誤っても、許さない。
ayamattemo, yurusanai.
Even if you apologize, I wont forgive you.
Even though you have apologized, I do not forgive you.
たって・とて・どころかたって
contradictory conjunction
始発に乗ったって、会議には間に合わない。
shihatsu ni nottatte, kaigi ni ha mani awa nai.
Even if you catch the first train, you wont make it to the meeting.
どんなに謝ったって、許せない。donnnai ayamattemo, yurusenai.
Regardless how much you apologize me, I wont forgive you.
「たって」is a coloquial version of「たとえ」. たとえどんなに~しても
regardless whatever you do, you'll fail.
The emphasis on A.
とて
contradictory conjunction
even if
漢字は難しいからとて、日本語学習には欠かせない。
kanji ha muzukasi kara tote, nihonngo gakushuu niha kakase nai.
Even if kanji is hard to learn, you can't avoid in Japanese study.
Eve if A might be a fact, B is not acceptable it as an excuse.
どころか
contradictory conjunction
far from, not at all
新聞が読めるどころか、最初は漢字を学ぶのに精一杯であった。
shinnbunn ga yomeru dokoroka, kannji wo manabu noni sei ippaideatta.
It was far from reading Japanese newspaper, I was fully occupied just with kanji study.
By negating one fact A, emphasize the other fact B.
When one lists facts or supposition, it is emphasized by additional description.
besdies, in addition, as well
彼女は金持ちだ、美人だ、器量も良い。kanojo ha kanemochi dashi, bijinndashi, kiryou mo yoi.
She is homely, and rich and pretty besides.

Japanese particles.
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